# The systems of scales or brackets

## Tincture

According to the preparation methods in the HPUS, all tinctures are 1/10 plant strength so the raw mother tincture is a 1X.  The next step is to make a 2X. Since a 2X is a dilution of 1/100 it is the same as a 1C. From there you can do 1:9 to get the x potencies and 1:99 to get the c's.

Some are marked MT for mother tincture and others have the symbol ุ to show that it is a tincture.

## Decimal (1:10) x

Developed by Dr. Samuel Dubs, of Philadelphia in the late 1830s, in an effort to develop half potencies in the lower ranges. Popularized by Hering. Also denoted by D in Europe.

## Centesimal (1:100) c or no suffix

Developed by Hahnemann. Mathematically: 1c = 2x, 2c = 4x, 3c = 6x, etc. Also denoted by CH (centesimal Hahnemann) in Europe.

## High Millesimal

• 1 M (1:1000)
• 10M (1:10,000)
• CM (1:100,000)

## Ultra-high Millesimal

MM was developed by Swan and has been shown to equal about the 10th centesimal potency of Hahnemann according to W.A. Dewey.

• MM (1:1,000,000)
• LMM (1:50,000,000)
• CMM (1:100,000,000)
• DM (1:500,000,000)

## 50 Millesimal (1:50,000)

The 50 millesimal or LM was hinted by Hahnemann in his Organon. See the LM potencies page for lots more info.

Denoted by 0/1, 0/2, ... 0/30 (Asian system), 1/0, 2/0,  30/0 (Western system), LM1, LM2,  LM30, or I, II,  XXX.

An LM1 has gone through 4 dilutions; 3 of 1:100 (to 3C, in trituration or succussion), and one of 1:50,000 (hence the "LM" label, from this last 1:50,000 dilution). Subsequent LM's - LM2, LM3, etc - involve further 1:50,000 dilutions. 1:50,000 = 104.7, or 1002.35. The dilution is therefore slightly less than that of a 6C (1003*1002.35 = 1005.35, or 5.35C).

An LM3 is diluted 1003*1007.35 = 10010.35, or 10.35C (recall, when multiplying, you add the exponents), i.e., somewhat less than a 12C. Even an LM30 (50,00030 = 10120 = 10060) is diluted 1003*10060 = 10063, that is, only to the same degree as a 63C.

At each of the 1:50,000 dilutions, the solution receives 100 succussions. This means an LM1 has been succussed considerably more than a 6C has.