According to the preparation methods in the HPUS, all tinctures are 1/10 plant strength so the raw mother tincture is a 1X. The next step is to make a 2X. Since a 2X is a dilution of 1/100 it is the same as a 1C. From there you can do 1:9 to get the x potencies and 1:99 to get the c's.
Some are marked MT for mother tincture and others have the symbol ุ to show that it is a tincture.
Developed by Dr. Samuel Dubs, of Philadelphia in the late 1830s, in an effort to develop half potencies in the lower ranges. Popularized by Hering. Also denoted by D in Europe.
Developed by Hahnemann. Mathematically: 1c = 2x, 2c = 4x, 3c = 6x, etc. Also denoted by CH (centesimal Hahnemann) in Europe.
MM was developed by Swan and has been shown to equal about the 10th centesimal potency of Hahnemann according to W.A. Dewey.
The 50 millesimal or LM was hinted by Hahnemann in his Organon. See the LM potencies page for lots more info.
Denoted by 0/1, 0/2, ... 0/30 (Asian system), 1/0, 2/0, 30/0 (Western system), LM1, LM2, LM30, or I, II, XXX.
An LM1 has gone through 4 dilutions; 3 of 1:100 (to 3C, in trituration or succussion), and one of 1:50,000 (hence the "LM" label, from this last 1:50,000 dilution). Subsequent LM's - LM2, LM3, etc - involve further 1:50,000 dilutions. 1:50,000 = 104.7, or 1002.35. The dilution is therefore slightly less than that of a 6C (1003*1002.35 = 1005.35, or 5.35C).
An LM3 is diluted 1003*1007.35 = 10010.35, or 10.35C (recall, when multiplying, you add the exponents), i.e., somewhat less than a 12C. Even an LM30 (50,00030 = 10120 = 10060) is diluted 1003*10060 = 10063, that is, only to the same degree as a 63C.
At each of the 1:50,000 dilutions, the solution receives 100 succussions. This means an LM1 has been succussed considerably more than a 6C has.